Written in EnglishRead online
|Statement||Charles J. Kozlik, James C. Ward|
|Contributions||Ward, J. C, United States. Forest Service|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||p. 45-53 :|
|Number of Pages||53|
Download Properties and kiln-drying characteristics of young-growth western hemlock dimension lumber
One of the problem areas in the kiln drying of western hemlock lumber is the wide variation in final moisture content of the wood. This variation in moisture content is due to the presence of. Get this from a library. Properties and kiln-drying characteristics of young-growth western hemlock dimension lumber.
[Charles J Kozlik; J C Ward; United States. Forest Service.]. dried hemlock dimension as soon as we could get our inventory practically aligned. We started on this realizing that an average of 15% moisture content was our goal with a maximum of 19% moisture content and not over 5% of the kiln charge over 19% moisture content.
Of course this would be easy to do if you didnt have to dry hemlock dimension. Rates of moisture loss during the kiln drying of 7/4- inch thick western hemlock. Both types of sinker heart dried at a slower rate than sapwood.
Aspirated bordered pits probably contributed to the relatively slow initial drying of normal heartwood, but the rate increased with. Blue sap stain, so common in many species of the. softwoods, as a rule causes little discoloration in western hemlock.
Defects common to all species of wood, such as knots, rot, shake, and checks, occur, of course, in western hemlock. western hemlock; its occurrence, moisture content and chemical constituents as well as kiln drying properties.
Figure (1) shows the location of sinker heartwood in a year old tree. This type of wood contains anaerobic bacteria, has a higher extractive content, higher specific gravity, dries at a slower rate than normal sapwood and heartwood.
Experiment to determine the potential for using aspen from Alberta formanufacturing lumber in which a kiln load of 8/4 aspen lumber was sawn, graded, dried, and re-graded. The drying rate was measured, possible kilnschedules were evaluated, the drying cost estimated, grade loss due to dryingwas measured according the NHLA standard rules, warp, splitting and MCproblems that would be considered.
Large volumes o f relatively small-diameter logs are generated from sustainable sources such as the Pacific Coast Hemlock second-growth forests. The percentage of juvenile wood in this kind of material is higher compared to limited old growth wood supplies. The present scientific knowledge is often limited to individual properties of juvenile wood without including interactions with other Author: Slobodan Bradic.
Western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) can be characterized by localized regions of high-moisture-content wood, often referred to as wet pockets, and uneven dry- ing conditions may occur when lumber of higher and lower moisture content is mixed together in a dry kiln.
I’m slowly grinding my way through roughly wood species that have still yet to be listed on the site. I’m working my way alphabetically by botanical name, so check out the latest added wood to see where I’m at in the queue.
(Let me know if you’ve got something interesting that you’d like to donate to the site; or else perhaps we. Poplar (Populus alba L.) lumber with a nominal thickness of 7 cm from the Taleghan region in Iran was dried through convective kiln drying and under three different programs of T5–D2 (Forest Product Laboratory proposed program for poplar), T5–D4, and T5–D6 in order to obtain the optimum kiln schedule so as to protect the wood quality at an appropriate level up to final moisture content of 12±2%.
The basis for distinguishing lumber as board, dimension lumber, and timber is the. durability of lumber. A lumber grade stamp must include information on the cross-sectional Properties and kiln-drying characteristics of young-growth western hemlock dimension lumber book of lumber.
— Characteristics of the stand-density study plots before and after thinning in Alaska. In this paper, we describe wood vol ume recovery, lumber grade yield, and some physical and mechanicalproperties for commercially thinned and unthinned young-growth Sitka spruce and western hemlock in southeastAlaska.
In addition. In addition stand management decisions are being made today that will influence the future quality of western hemlock. We can reduce the risk of making wrong management decisions by providing information on how different growing conditions (e.g.
biogeoclimatic zone, site, stand density, and thinning) affect second-growth wood quality. Pacific Lumber Inspection Bureau (PLIB), Redwood Inspection Service (RIS), a division of the California Redwood Association (CRA), West Coast Lumber Inspection Bureau (WCLIB), and Western Wood Products Association (WWPA).
All of these agencies are accredited by the American Lumber Standard Committee, Inc. (ALSC), under the U.S. The purpose of this study was to explore whether or not vertical air gaps, air velocities, and fan revolutions had any effect on drying characteristics of by mm in cross-section western hemlock baby squares.
Western hemlock squares at different lengths are widely used in Japan for housing construction. Today, about 95% of the baby squares are shipped to Japan in green condition Cited by: 1. Canadian Developments in Kiln Drying.
trends related to industrial kiln drying with especial emphasis on the drying of softwood dimension lumber in Canada. for thick western hemlock timbers.
Introduction Western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) and amabilis fir (Abies amabilis (Dougl.) Forbes) are the most abundant species in the coastal area and the wet belts of British Columbia (BC).
These two softwood species grow together and are marketed as Pacific Coast Hemlock (PCH). PCH lumber with a dimension of mm in crosssection and at different lengths, commonly called. Kiln-drying incense-cedar squares for pencil stock.
Forest Products Journal 37(5) [ Links ] Kozlik, C.J.; Ward, J.C. Properties and Kiln-Drying Characteristics of Young-Growth Western hemlock Dimension Lumber. Forest Products Journal 31(6) [ Links ] Milota, M.; Wu, Q. Postsorting of hem-fir: A mill by: 6. This the fundamental basis of kiln-drying technology, to enable forest companies to imFrove their drying operations as high-quality timbers become scarcer and of Cited by: Kozlik CJ, Ward JC () Properties and kiln-drying characteristics of young-growth western hemlock dimension lumber.
For Prod J 31(6)–53 Google Scholar; Mackay JFK () Properties of northern aspen discolored wood related to drying problems.
Wood Fiber 6(4)–Cited by: Full Article. Size Effect on Strength Properties of Chinese Larch Dimension Lumber. Haibin Zhou, Liuyang Han, Haiqing Ren, * Jianxiong Lu. An experimental study was conducted to investigate the effect of size on the strength properties of Chinese larch (Larix gmelinii) dimension lumber.
pieces of dimension lumber were sampled in three sizes, 40 by 65 mm, 40 by 90 mm, and 40 by mm. Old—growth hemlock—hardwood stands at the upper end of the age continuum (>— yr) have accumulated both gradual and threshold structural changes, acquiring most of the following characteristics: (1) a strong correlation between age and diameter of trees, (2) low densities of live trees distributed across all size classes, (3) trees Cited by: Full text of "List of publications on kiln drying, physical properties of wood, wood structure" See other formats.
conifer and cool western hemlock/Douglas-fir forests, respectively. Study Sites The Teakettle Experimental Forest is a 1,ha old-growth watershed on Patterson Mountain located 80 km East of Fresno, California, on the Sierra National Forest.
Teakettle’s most common soil is a well-drained, mixed, frigid Dystric Xeropsamment, formed from Cited by: Photomicrograph of a small block of western hemlock. At the top is the cross section showing to the right the late wood of one season's growth, to the left the early wood of the next season.
The mechanical properties of wood considered in this book are: (1) has been found to live four years and eight months in a dry condition. Large timbers dry very slowly compared to boards and dimension lumber.
Timbers are usually air dried, in contrast to the kiln drying of boards and dimension lumber, in order to dry the wood very slowly, helping to reduce the amount of drying-induced defects. This also allows reasonable delivery time because timbers are usually shipped wet.
Chapter 1 Properties of Wood Related to Drying Commercial wood species 1 Hardwoods and softwoods 2 Structural features of wood 2 Sapwood and heartwood 4 Pith 4 Annual growth rings 4 Wood rays 4 Grain and texture 5 Color 5 Variations in structure 5 Commercial lumber grades 6 Hardwood lumber grades 6 Softwood lumber grades 6 Wood-moisture relations 7 Free and bound water 8.
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LUMBER Table of Contents Page Chapter I The Source of Lumber 1 Chapter II Structure of Wood 10 Chapter III Selection of Lumber for Farm and Home Building 16 Working Qualities of Commercial Woods.
37 Chapter IV Defects in Lumber, and Unfounded Beliefs 38 Chapter V Dimension Lumber 43 Dimensions of Common Boards planing.
The actual dimensions of planed, dry lumber reflect the shrinkage of green lumber in kiln-drying and the material removed during planing, which means that a nominal dimension 2x4 is actually inches thick by inches wide.
The range of nominal and actual di-mensions for North American softwood lumber is shown Table 1. Lumber sawn from young-growth Sitka spruce and western hemlock in southeast Alaska appears to be best suited for structural light framing or molding and millwork based on visual grading rules and mechanical properties observed.
In this study, which applied export standards, more than 90 percent of the lumber was graded as No. 2 or better. Lumber sorting before drying is a very common practice in the lumber manufacturing industry, since it creates groups of lumber with similar "dry-ability" characteristics.
At the laboratory level, Kozlik and Ward () studied the dry-ability characteristics of sorted young-growth hemlock. The potential of visible and near infrared (Vis-NIR) spectroscopy to distinguish wet-pockets from normal subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa Hook) wood was evaluated.
Two specimen classes were used, namely, wood with more than half of the surfaces covered by wet-pockets (WW), and wood completely free of wet-pockets (NW).
A partial least square (PLS) regression model was derived and. Archived Content. Information identified as archived on the Web is for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. It has not been altered or updated after the date of archiving. Web pages that are archived on the Web are not subject to the Government of Canada Web Standards.
Green lumber dimensions for thickness and width are closer to the nominal dimensions than the dry lumber dimensions. When a piece of green lumber is surfaced to the "standard" green size, it will shrink to approximately the standard dry size as it dries down to about 15 percent moisture content.
(The American Softwood Lumber Standard. Abstract. During the 20 th century, the Pacific Northwest (western Oregon and Washington, coastal British Columbia, and southeastern Alaska) produced some of the highest quality timber in North America.
Forests were old and trees were large; wood products from this region were easily distinguished from those made from timber produced in other regions in North by: Site index tables for western hemlock in the Pacific Northwest (Weyerhaeuser forestry paper) Unknown Binding – January 1, by Kenneth N Wiley (Author) See all formats and editions Hide other formats and editions.
Enter your mobile number or email address below and we'll send you a link to download the free Kindle App. Author: Kenneth N Wiley. Lumber and Plywood at WOODWEB's Knowledge Base. Find articles on what old growth means, processing trees to lumber, sawing utility poles, chip-free dovetailing in plywood, flattening boards with a planer, the sustainable chain of custody, converting board foot to lineal foot pricing, and much more.
Kiln drying is a very effective, but expensive, way of seasoning lumber Kiln drying produces wood that is % moisture content max. Surfacing - planing is done by large power driven rotating knives and planes the wood to exact dimensions.
Moisture content and tensile strength of Douglas fir dimension lumber Volume of Research paper FPL Moisture content and tensile strength of Douglas fir dimension lumber: Authors: David W.
Green, Forest Products Laboratory (U.S.) Publisher: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, Original from: University.similar drying characteristics (3).
O BJECTIVE The objective of this study was to determine if a correlation exists be-tween green density of freshly cut red oak lumber and the occurrence of hon-eycomb during kiln-drying. M ATERIALS AND METHODS Five-quarter red oak lumber (Quer-cus sp.) was obtained, fresh] y cut, from a sawmill in coastal Author: Robert A.
Harris, Philip A. Araman.western hemlock fir, Prince Albert fir, gray fir, silver fir, and Alas pine. The heartwood and sapwood of western hemlock are almost white with a purplish tinge.
Sapwood, which is sometimes lighter in color, is generally not over 1 inch thick. Growth rings are distinct. The wood contains small, sound, black knots that are usually tight and stay.